The Mary MacLane Project

The definitive website on the life and work of the pioneering feminist writer, film-maker, and media personality Mary MacLane (1881-1929)

This is selection from thousands of items of present and past scholarly work/response to Mary MacLane. Due to the volume of writing on this author it is by necessity somewhat scattershot, though there is a focus on feminist scholarship (which has been the most productive of MacLane citations), but gives a sense of the amplitude of response. A full collection in all languages will be provided in the forthcoming study of published reactions to Mary MacLane, Mary in the Press: Miss MacLane and Her Fame and will be put in context in the forthcoming biography/literary analysis A Quite Unusual Intensity of Life: The Lives, Worlds, and Works of Mary MacLane.

n.b.: "The Story of Mary MacLane" was the publisher's title for MacLane's first book, which was titled in manuscript "I Await the Devil's Coming"; the manuscript title appears as a subtitle ("originally published as...") in Tender Darkness: A Mary MacLane Anthology (1993) and is given as the book's title in the Melville House reissue (2013) and subsequent reissues and translations.

--- Major Modern Appearances ---

1977 - Leslie Wheeler

“Montana's Shocking 'Lit'ry Lady,'” Montana: The Magazine of Western History (July, 1977) - The pioneering biographical article on Mary MacLane, unsurpassed to this date. Wheeler adeptly tells MacLane's story from her family background to her death; contains invaluable information from interviews with family members. Research since has turned up significant information not contained in this article, but little to nothing to contradict it.

2000 - Kathryn Beth Tovo

PhD dissertation on Mary MacLane: “The unparalleled individuality of me”: The story of Mary MacLane, by Kathryne Beth Tovo (University of Texas at Austin)

Abstract: This dissertation is one of the first book-length studies of Mary MacLane, a writer whose work played a significant role in the cultural and literary landscape of early-twentieth century America. In The Story of Mary MacLane (1902), her first and most popular autobiography, MacLane interrogated the cultural systems of gender and sexuality and implicitly challenged the connections between reading, writing, and morality in a manner that would come to be associated with feminism and modernism. - MacLane’s use of language and revision of the autobiographical genre defied a culture that placed increasing importance on standardization in these areas. The Story of Mary MacLane shapes autobiography as an interactive performance involving the autobiographical subject and audience and employs a rhetoric of fragmentation, the textual equivalent of her iconoclastic moral and religious views. These rhetorical strategies help cast MacLane as an “odd” woman; like the subject who identifies in herself a “strange attraction of sex” for another woman, the text itself crosses genres and violates categories. - The dissertation examines MacLane’s public interactions within the context of a culture fascinated by outlaws and others who violated conventional standards of behavior. In the manner of performance artists, MacLane made her public persona part of an assault on conventional morality and etiquette. Interactions with reporters, socialites, and other fans who flocked to meet her became occasions where MacLane exhibited an eccentricity she called “capering”—actions calculated to shock, offend, and amuse. - After the publication of The Story of Mary MacLane, young women in several states allegedly engaged in acts of social disruption and were pronounced victims of “MacLaneism” by the media. The dissertation explores “MacLaneism” and other responses from readers and the general public as they intersect cultural debates about the nature of genius, the power of books, and women’s reading practices. - Drawing on extensive archival and primary research, this dissertation reconstructs MacLane’s life and the public response to The Story of Mary MacLane within a broad contextual background of modernism, early feminism, and the beginnings of a celebrity culture.

1997 - Cathryn Luanne Halverson

PhD dissertation on MacLane and Opal Whiteley: Autobiography, genius, and the American West: the story of Mary MacLane and Opal Whiteley (University of Michigan) - Abstract: This dissertation is the first comprehensive study of the early twentieth-century American diarists Mary MacLane and Opal Whiteley. Their unorthodox and even mysterious texts The Story of Mary MacLane and The Story of Opal made these women two of the most notorious writers of their time. Their youth (both published their texts at the age of twenty, and Whiteley wrote hers when six and seven) and their remote origins of Butte, Montana and the forests of western Oregon further secured their intrigue. As westerners, MacLane and Whiteley were perceived by eastern readers as at once outlandish and parochial, western and midwestern, unique and representative. They also both contributed to and profited from their era's vogue for texts exploring the passions and claustrophobia of unknown, ordinary women. Their celebrity was brief, however, and today MacLane and Whiteley are almost wholly unknown. As authors of texts compelling in their own right and as figures that illuminate the dynamics of early twentieth-century print culture, MacLane and Whiteley deserve to occupy a central place in American literary history. This study, therefore, is at once both a recovery project that brings to light the extraordinary lives, texts, and careers of two masterly writers, and an exploration of the relations among region, autobiography, gender, celebrity, and artistic identity in early twentieth-century America. Using period reviews, popular magazine and newspaper accounts, publishers' archives, and personal correspondence as well as the diaries themselves, I focus on the role played by region both in MacLane and Whiteley's careers in eastern markets and in their textual and personal construction as artists. This study probes the origins and nature of the western female aesthetic that underpins familiar notions (as in the popular image of Georgia O'Keeffe) of the western woman artist whose art springs from a semi-mystical communion with a vast western landscape. To contextualize MacLane and Whiteley as western women writers, I also examine the autobiographical fiction of their better-known contemporaries Willa Cather, Mary Austin, and Mourning Dove. In contrast to Southern and New England women's, western women's writing has received little critical attention as a regional genre; especially neglected as western texts are those written by women who traveled not to but from the West. Early twentieth-century western women writers, I contend, are linked by their gendered and post-frontier rewriting of the romance of the West through their use of the region to define themselves as artists or geniuses. They identified themselves with the sublime landscapes into which they intermittently ventured, but against the provincial communities they actually inhabited; this perception of a bifurcated West particularly facilitated racial and class fantasies.

2017 - Per Faxneld

Substantial section on MacLane in Satanic Feminism: Lucifer as the Liberator of Woman in Nineteenth-Century Culture (Oxford Studies in Western Esotericism), Oxford University Press. (See also author's 2014 PhD thesis, Stockholm University.) - Amazon summary: According to the Bible, Eve was the first to heed Satan's advice to eat the forbidden fruit and thus responsible for all of humanity's subsequent miseries. The notion of woman as the Devil's accomplice is prominent throughout Christian history and has been used to legitimize the subordination of wives and daughters. In the nineteenth century, rebellious females performed counter-readings of this misogynist tradition. Lucifer was reconceptualized as a feminist liberator of womankind, and Eve became a heroine. In these reimaginings, Satan is an ally in the struggle against a tyrannical patriarchy supported by God the Father and his male priests. Per Faxneld shows how this Satanic feminism was expressed in a wide variety of nineteenth-century literary texts, autobiographies, pamphlets, newspaper articles, paintings, sculptures, and even artifacts of consumer culture like jewelry. He details how colorful figures like the suffragette Elizabeth Cady Stanton, gender-bending Theosophist H. P. Blavatsky, author Aino Kallas, actress Sarah Bernhardt, anti-clerical witch enthusiast Matilda Joslyn Gage, decadent marchioness Luisa Casati, and the Luciferian lesbian poetess Renée Vivien embraced these reimaginings. By exploring the connections between esotericism, literature, art and the political realm, Satanic Feminism sheds new light on neglected aspects of the intellectual history of feminism, Satanism, and revisionary mythmaking.

1977 - Carolyn J. Mattern

“Mary MacLane: A Feminist Opinion" - Montana: The Magazine of Western History (October, 1977). A useful supplement to Wheeler (1977) (see above). Examines MacLane as feminist.

2016 - MicKenzie E. Fasteland

Substantial mentions in PhD thesis: Empire and Adolescence: Whiteness and Gendered Citizenship in American Young Adult Literature, 1904-1951 (University of Michigan). MM Referred to throughout; cf. especially Chapter Three, "The Fault in Our Girls: New Women, Modern Girls, and Excessive White Desire in Literature for Teens, 1904-1928," sect. I: "'I, of Woman Kind and of Nineteen Years': Mary MacLane, Fan Culture, and Reading like a New Woman" - Abstract: This dissertation examines how American adolescent literary book lists and adolescent literature normalized White Anglo-Saxon Protestant subjectivities in the first half of the twentieth century. Figures like child study psychologist G. Stanley Hall and librarian Anne Carroll Moore created a gendered and racialized reading practice for American teens that would construct a functioning imperialist citizenry whereas teen authors Mary MacLane and Maureen Daly provided contesting (and occasionally colluding) models of adolescent reading. The introduction argues that early discourses around adolescent reading practices must be contextualized against American imperialist and military action to better deconstruct racialized images of adolescent citizenry. The first chapter examines how Hall’s literary genre for teens, “ephebic literature,” provided a new cultural model of adolescent development that pulled together stories from Greek mythology, medieval legends, and Western biography to imagine a model of imperialist citizenship bounded by race and gender. The second chapter proposes a revised stance on Moore’s career that both recognizes her contributions to increasing dialogue between librarians and their adolescent patrons and calls attention her post-WWI recommendations for teens, which did not reflect the ethnic and racial diversity that marked the New York Public Library’s patrons but relied instead on Western European and American literature that marginalized nonwhite or immigrant characters. The third chapter juxtaposes two case studies, one historical and one fictional, of two white adolescent “New Women” whose obsessive reading was framed as dangerous to nationalist goals. The first re-reads Mary MacLane’s memoir as an adolescent expression of fandom, one that intertwined plotlines from girl’s bildungsroman with the tenants of lyric poetry to create queer futurities and communities; the second returns to Moore’s recommendations for girls to articulate how her condemnation of Fanny Kilbourne’s Betty Bell was bound up in white respectability politics. The fourth chapter reframes Maureen Daly’s extensive career writing to and for teens into a complicated performance of a commercialized WASP subjectivity that marginalized her own Irish-Catholic background during and after WWII. This dissertation calls for young adult literary studies to examine these historical developments to better contextualize current problems increasing diversity in young adult literature.

1993 - Kimberly J. Davitt

Mentioned throughout in MA (History) thesis: Female visions and verse - Turn-of-the-century women artists and writers in the Montana landscape - University of Montana

Late 1970s? - Peggy Pascoe

Unpublished undergraduate essay on Mary MacLane, written at Montana State University. (Title page evidently missing. Identified by Butte Silver Bow Public Library as written before 1982. Copy in Butte-Silver Bow Public Library.)

1997 - Mary Murphy

Mentions in Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-41 (Women in American History), University of Illinois Press (Champaign), 1997. Amazon summary: Probing behind the "wide-open city" moniker Butte has worn so well, Mining Cultures shows how the western city evolved from a male-dominated mining enclave to a community in which men and women participated on a more equal basis as leisure patterns changed and consumer culture grew. - Mary Murphy's engagingly written book is the first serious look at how women worked and spent their leisure time in a city dominated by men's work - mining. In bringing Butte to life, she draws on church weeklies, high school yearbooks, holiday rituals, movie plots, and news of local fashion, in addition to the more customary court cases, newspapers, and interviews. - Her lively chronicle of the growth of consumer culture in Butte is richly illustrated. It will interest those in western and women's history, leisure and consumerism studies, and labor and immigration history, as well as general readers.

2013 - Tove Solander

Brief mentions in PhD thesis: "Creating the Senses": Sensation in the work of Shelley Jackson, Umeå University (Sweden). Abstract: This monograph on the œuvre of contemporary American author and multimedia artist Shelley Jackson addresses the question of how literary works employ language to evoke sense impressions. Gilles Deleuze’s notion of aesthetic percepts is drawn on to develop a theory of literary phantom sensations which is then tested on the work of Jackson and related authors. Although imperceptible as such, it is argued that percepts are made perceptible in art in sense-specific forms as phantom sensations. “Phantom” is not meant to indicate a pale shadow of real sensations but the intensely perceived realness of phantom limb phenomena, in accordance with Deleuze’s understanding of the virtual as real but not actual. For the sake of clarity, literary phantom sensations are divided into phantom smells, tastes, touches, sights and sounds, with a chapter devoted to each in turn. It is found that different phantom sensations serve different functions in Jackson’s work, correlated to the cultural history of the senses as outlined by recent sensory scholarship. Phantom smells are associated with Deleuze’s concept of becoming due to their liminality. Phantom tastes contribute to an aesthetics of distaste in which shades of disgust are cultivated and drawn upon for literary effect. Phantom touch creates conceptual intimacy and invites the reader to handle words like toys in a game. Phantom sight is turned back upon itself in an anatomy of the eye. Phantom hearing is associated with forms of ventriloquism in which it is unclear who is speaking through whom and in which language itself throws its voice. However, it is also found that all phantom sensations similarly serve to create a material and affective connection between the body of the reader and the body of the text. Throughout the dissertation, Jackson’s work is read against and alongside that of other writers such as Djuna Barnes, Neil Bartlett, Brigid Brophy and Leonora Carrington. Together these form a trajectory termed minor writing for queers to come, which is meant to indicate that aesthetic and sexual-political radicalism go hand in hand. Furthermore, Jackson’s work is described as a form of body writing informed by feminist body art and écriture féminine. Specifically, Jackson takes her cue from early modern anatomical blazons and describes living bodies in pieces. Her work is also described as object writing: a literary equivalent to surrealist object art. A central method for making words more like things is to arrange her texts spatially rather than temporally, as exemplified by her electronic hypertexts.

2007 - Natasha Hurley

Brief mentions in PhD thesis: Getting Around: Circulation and the Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Novel (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey). Abstract: My dissertation reorients the prevailing understanding that the gay and lesbian novel came into view in response to the emergence of homosexuality >as a concept. I argue that the gay and lesbian novel has a much longer history, which I trace by considering the literary circulation of homosexual types--types that through course of the nineteenth century accrete more and more language to themselves while also generating new abstract terms to describe same-sex sexual sociability. Eighteenth-century literature was sparsely populated by minor characters or fleeting episodes of desire expressed between members of the same sex. By the end of the nineteenth century, minor characters evolve into protagonists and their episodic encounters are either multiplied or developed into novel-length narratives with the texture of entire worlds. "Getting Around" thus takes as its focus the development not just of queer characters or subjects, but of queer protagonists and complete narrative worlds in which those protagonists make sense. - My chapters focus both on the ways authors respond to the language of sexual types in other texts and on the ways other texts respond to them as they continue to circulate. My first chapter argues that Herman Melville's Typee has gradually acquired its status as a queer text: in the ways Melville engages with sexuality in missionary writings and in the way other writers engage with sexuality in Typee. This influence can be seen fully in Charles Warren Stoddard's writing, which I explore in Chapter Two. Stoddard's depictions of sexual sociability between men in the South Seas respond directly to Melville's and are, in turn, nurtured by Stoddard's wide circuits of literary and social circulation. My third chapter charts the circulation of female sexual types, tracing the overlapping, and mutually constituting, relationships between old maids and lesbians that are central to the social worlds depicted by Sarah Orne Jewett and Henry James. My final chapter turns fully to James's The Bostonians. In the space of one novel, I argue, James dramatizes the processes of sexual type production and social circulation that I have been documenting in American literature throughout the nineteenth century.

2010 - Chad Michael Okrusch

Brief quote in PhD thesis: Pragmatism and Environmental Problem-Solving: A Systematic Moral Analysis Of Democratic Environmental Decision-Making In Butte, Montana (Unversity of Oregon)

--- Other Appearances - Chronological ---


1902 - Prof. Oscar Lovell Triggs - "Lauds Mary M’Lane Now" - Chicago Daily Tribune, Jun 1902 - Prof. Triggs Praises the Butte Girl’s Book - Prof. Oscar L. Triggs laid a wreath at the feet of Mary MacLane in his summer class in literature yesterday at the university of Chicago. She was characterized as a vivid depicter of the emotions of the soul. - “Such a book as the one written by Mary MacLane never could have been written or conceived by a woman living in the east,” declared Prof. Triggs. “Only a life spent in a barren region in the west could have given a woman the power to write such a work. A reader of this book will see the soul of a woman laid bare. Few people will probably have the strength and courage to read it, or the wit to understand.”

1904 - G. Stanley Hall - In our civilization, I believe that bright girls of good environment of eighteen or nineteen, or even seventeen, have already reached the peculiar stage of first maturity, when they see the world at first hand, when the senses are at their very best, their susceptibilities and their insights the keenest, tension at its highest, plasticity and all-sided interests most developed, and their whole psychic soil richest and rankest and sprouting everywhere with the tender shoots of everything both good and bad. Some such - Stella Klive [sic. - "Stella Kleve"], Mary MacLane, Hilma Strandberg, Marie Bashkirtseff - have been veritable spies upon woman's nature; have revealed the characterlessness normal to the prenubile period in which everything is kept tentative and plastic, and where life seems to have least unity, aim, or purpose. - in Adolescence - its psychology, and its relations to physiology, anthropolgy, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education - Appelton (New York), 1904, vol. ii

1917 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smith_Ely_JelliffeJelliffe, Smith Ely. "I, Mary MacLane, A Psychoanalytical Review and Appreciation," Interstate Medical Journal, Vol. XXV, No. 3, 1918

1956 - Foster, Jeanette Howard - Sex Variant Women in Literature, Vantage Press, New York

1961 - Alvarez, Walter C. - Minds That Came Back, Lippincott, Phildelphia, 1961

1965 - Bert S. Kaplan, "The Inner World of Mental Illness: A Series of First-Person Accounts of What it was Like." Harper & Row, New York.

1975 - Patricia Meyer Spacks, The Female Imagination, Knopf, New York.

Autumn 1975 - Hudson Review - "Vive la Difference!" by Maureen Howard - [In The Female Imagination, Patrecia Meyer] Spacks moves with ease from the somewhat obscure work of Mary McLane and Charlotte Perkins Gilman to the popular reference (Jean Kerr, Joan Didion) to the great novels of Austen and Eliot.

Winter 1975 - Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society - "Literary History" by Elaine Showalter - The task of rediscovery, while altogether admirable, is self-limiting. The supply of Kate Chopins and Edith Kelleys cannot be infinite; Freeman's storoes are uneven and writers like Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Mary MacLane have more historical and cultural significance than they do artistic.

16 Mar. 1986 - N.Y. Times - "Self Speaks to Self" - review by Patricia Hampl of A Day at a Time: The Diary Literature of American Women From 1764 to the Present ed. Margo Culley - The collection begins with the virtually affectless log of Mary Vial Holyoke, whose terse list of household events is punctuated between 1764 and 1782 by her equally colorless notation of the deaths of eight of her children. She and several others are offered as examples of the early diary, before the 19th century’s “romantic discovery of the self.” - Mary MacLane’s diary, on the other hand, sold 80,000 copies the first month it was published in 1901. It displays a repellent self-absorption and inflation (“I am a genius”), perhaps proving that the modern personal mode can stand toe to toe against the impersonality of the 18th century in any contest of sheer tedium.

1989 - Women's Studies Encyclopedia (vol. II) (pub. Greenwood Press) by Helen Tierney - "As society recognized the value of the individual, and women saw themselves as more than adjuncts to their fathers, husbands, and sons, the diary as a form of personal ratification gained importance. For many women the diary was an outlet for their private thoughts, since they were not free to enter into the larger world occupied by men. Important texts here include the Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams (1841) by Abigail Adams, Pilgrim at Tinker Creek (1974) by Annie Dillard, The Diary of Alice James (1964), I, Mary MacLane (1917), The Diaries of Sylvia Plath (1982), and May Sarton’s Journal of a Solitude (1973)."

Dec. 1991 - Women's Review of Books - letter to editors by Lilliam Faderman - Dear Editors: ... - At least as early as 1917 in America, the word "lesbian" appears to have meant just about what we mean by it today: In I, Mary MacLane: A Diary of Human Days, an autobiography, MacLane declares, "The Lesbian sex-strain as an effect is reckoned a pren-natal influence," and "I have lightly kissed and been kissed by Lesbian lips." (See my discussion of this book in Surpassing the Love of Men, pp. 299-300.) ... - Lillian Faderman - Fresno, CA

1991 - The Biography of Alice B. Toklas (pub. University of Nebraska Press [Lincoln]) by Linda Simon. - In 1902, the publication of The Story of Mary MacLane shocked the country. The author became infamous for her splash of lurid color against a uniformly gray background. Mary MacLane’s confession of Lesbianism gave full bent to her sexual fantasies. The only comparable revelation of a woman’s sexuality was the journal of the young artist Marie Bashkirtseff, who disclosed her aversion to men, though she did not blatantly confess a love of women. She longed for the freedom which masculinity would give her, and felt encumbered by society’s limitations. “To marry and have children? Any washerwoman can do that,” Marie declared. “What then do I desire? Ah, you know well what I desire-I desire glory!...If I had been born a man, I would have conquered Europe. As I was born a woman, I exhausted my energy in tirades against fate, and in eccentricities.” - [CK THIS IS THERE]Alice read both books, but no author, however passionate, could sufficiently console.

August 1997 - “The Rhetoric of Transgression: Realism, Modernism and the (Re)Presentation of Self in the Autobiographical Writings of Mary MacLane" by Christine Leiren Mower - paper presented at Feminism(s) and Rhetoric(s): From Boundaries to Borderlands, University of Oregon

October 1997 - “The Word is Image: Iconicity in the Prose of Mary MacLane” by Christine Leiren Mower - paper presented at Breaking Barriers — Literature and Emerging Issues International Conference, University of Maryland [Eastern Shore]

November 1997 - "Iconoclastic Memoir: Rebel Narrative in the Writings of Dorothy Allison and Mary MacLane” by Christine Leiren Mower - paper presented at BConference on Narrative, University of Kentucky

Winter 1997 - “Women’s Literature and the Body” - Teaching Practicum by Christine Leiren Mower at Western Washington University (English 350 - Women’s Literature) - Assisted in the research, course development and teaching of an upper-division 19th-and-20th-century British and American literature course. Texts included Frankenstein; The Awakening; The Story of Mary MacLane; selections from Gail Sterne Paster’s The Body Embarrassed; Minding the Body; Audre Lorde’s The Cancer Diaries; Sharon Olds’s Gold Cell; Margaret Atwood’s Handmaid’s Tale

1998 - "The Autobiographic Body: Self-Writing and the Female Body in the Turn-of-the-Century Writings of Zitkala-Sa and Mary MacLane" by Christine Leiren Mower - Pacfic Coast Philology (Vol. 33m no2). "Feminist Mary MacLane in The Story of Mary MacLane and Sioux Indian activist Zitkala-Sa in American Indian Stories create a body-rhetoric which both materially represents the female body as well as subversively engages that body as performative act(s) of self-empowerment."

November 1999 - "Autobiographic Bodies: Self Writing and the Parodic Body in the Turn-of-the-Century Writings of Zitkala-Ša and Mary MacLane” by Christine Leiren Mower - PAMLA, Claremont College

1999 - "Reading Little Girls' Texts in the 1920s: Searching for the 'Spirit of Childhood'" by Cathryn Halverson - in Children's Literature in Education

1999 - Amicus Curiae by C[hristine] Leiren Mower - in Feminist Studies, Vol. 25 no. ? - ... It is not the ordinary woman-love-writes Mary MacLane-it is something that burns with a vivid fire all its own.(1) - ... The words of the English language are futile, writes Mary-words are for ordinary use. - ... In her dreaming womb. - ... I feel her always hungry, I(she) says ... NOTES - 1. Citations to Mary contained within this essay refer to the words of early-twentieth- century feminist writer Mary MacLane.

Fall 2000 - Women's Life Writing - Syllabus for Honors 240 Section 001 - Reading the Past (Women's Life Writing) - by Professor Barbara Melosh, Houston Community College System - In this course we will consider American women's autobiographical expression, including formal autobiography, memoirs, diaries, and letters. We will examine such sources both as genres, structured by rules and conventions of writing and reading, and as historical documents that provide valuable evidence of women's experiences and consciousness. We will do some common reading designed to provide background and inspiration for the main work of the course: individual research projects dealing with some aspect of American women's life writing.... Culley, Margo, ed. A Day at a Time: The Diary Literature of American Women from 1764 to the Present .... - p 44 Wed., Nov. 8: Personal Life as Historical: Read Mary MacLane, pp. 187-203; and Abigail Lewis, pp. 256-71. Twentieth-century diaries, as Culley notes, become dominated by explorations of the interior self and of personal life. What do such sources tell historians? What historical questions might they suggest?

2001 - Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia by Miriam Forman-Brunell (ed.?) (pub. ABC-CLIO) - In seeking models for diary keeping, girls throughout history have been able to turn to a number of published diaries, both real and fictional, including twenty-year-old Mary McLane’s 1902 account of her passionate inner life, which sold more than 80,000 cpies in its first month and was variously hailed as obscene, brilliant, and mad (Culley 1985, 187); Marie Baskirtseff’s account of her life as a young artist in Russia; Anne Frank’s tragic account of her family’s attempts to avoid being found by the Nazis; and Joan W. Blos’s A Gathering of Days: A New England Girl’s Journal, 1830-32 (Gannett 1995, 121).

2004 - The Tradition of Women’s Autobiography - by - Jellinek - [RESTORE ITALS] Other literary figures whose autobiographies concentrate on their childhood include Grace Greenwood (pseudonym for Sara Jane Clark Lippincott) (1823-1904)-Recollections of My Childhood and Other Stories (1883); Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924)-The One I Knew the Best of All: A Memory of the Mind of a Child (1893); Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards (1850-1943)-When I Was Your Age (1894): Mary Antin (1881-1949)-From Plotzk to Boston (1899); and Mary MacLane (1881-1929)-The Story of Mary MacLane (1902). - Some autobiographers at the turn of the century avoided writing about their literary careers by focusing almost entirely on personal anecdotes about their times and the people they knew. Examples are Mary Elizabeth Wilson Sherwood (1826-1903)-An Epistle to Posterity: Being Rambling Recollections of Many Years of My Life (1897); Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney (1824-1904)-Reminiscences (1902); Rebecca Blaine Harding Davis (1831-1910)-Bits of Gossip (1904); Marion Harland’s Autobiography: The Story of a Long Life (1910) by the novelist Mary Virginia Hawes Terhune (1830-1922); Constance Cary Harrison (1843-1920)-Recollections Grave and Gay (1911); and Adele Sarpy Morrison (b. 1842)-Memoirs (1911).

Aug. 2005 - A Public View - by Lanette Cadle (IS THIS IN PHD?)

maclane-mary-2005-09-MOAPPROX-Jennie-A-Camp

DATE - "Bringing Mary MacLane Back Home: Western Autobiographical Writing and the Anxiety of Place," by Juia Watson in Western Subjects: Autobiographical Writing in the North American West by Kathleen A. Boardman; Gioia Woods

DATE - Maverick Autobiographies: Women Writers and the American West, 1900–1936 - By Cathryn Halverson. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004. 240 pp. $45.00. - Reviewed by Victoria Lamont, University of Waterloo

Oct. 2007 - Hurley, Natasha: "Getting Around: Circulation and the Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Novel" - PhD dissertation, Graduate School, New Brunswick [sic] Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, Oct 2007, p 259 (biblio 285) - Implied in some of these texts, and overtly stated in others, is the [space inserted] overwhelming (even overdetermined) sense that educating women together will lead to lesbianism - all because the environment facilitates both physical closeness and the pleasures of "direct contact" in a context of intense intellectual engagement. The female body is stimulated both by learning and by the proximity of other bodies, even if they are female. (A veritable subgenre of short fiction set in women's colleges emerges in the United States in the early twentieth Century along precisely these lines. See for instance Josephine Daskam Dodge's Smith College Stories (1900), Mary MacLane's The Story of Mary MacLane (1902), Mary Constance Dubois' "The Lass of the Silver Sword" (1908-09), and Jennette Lee's "The Cat and the King" (1919).

2007 - "'Typical Tokio Smile': Bad American Books and Bewitching Japanese Girls" by Cathryn Halverson - in Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 63.1

Fall 2012 - "A 'Perpipatetic Philosopher': Sexual and Gender Mobility in the Work of Mary MacLane" - paper by Julie Williams - UNM Feminist Research Institute - Fall 2012 Schedule - itinerary and information at https://web.archive.org/web/20140815035826/http://femresin.unm.edu/events/archive/2012-13/index.html accessed 8/14

Fall 2014 - “New-Woman” Fiction of the 1890s and Beyond: Sex, Subversion, and Pseudonyms" - class by Prof. Shoshana Milgram Knapp - English 5334 - Special Topics in Literature - Spend a semester with the Daughters of Decadence! - The notorious writers of "New Woman" fiction — on both sides of the Atlantic — shocked, entertained, and inspired readers at the border of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; their work remains provocative, articulate, and passionate. Many of them wrote under pseudonyms — "for reasons" (as one appalled reviewer observed) "that one can well understand." All of them had what Mary MacLane called “a quite unusual intensity of life.” - We will encounter colorful characters: aspiring composers, archaeologists, world travelers, politicians, and, of course, would-be writers. Each of you will choose one lesser-known “new woman” writer whom you consider a candidate for re-discovery, and the class will decide, by consensus, to read one or more additional texts by the winner of our own British/American Idol contest.

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